Family Name: Betulaceae
This small tree really came to the front of the line while I was doing my PhD research. My PhD had to do with finding plants that stimulate life force, that indescribable thing that backs up good strong vitality. Anyhow, this was a major plant in the last century, used to strengthen well body or a body that was being taken down by chronic infection. The references were so positive and affirmative by the doctors that used it, I had no choice but to take note.
At the moment, I have found a bunch of it growing near my house in Washington, DC, and I intend to start some trials with it. Its history is all in the past, but, as you will read, its past suggests it should have a future.
Chapter from My PhD Thesis
Notes from the Eclectic Physicians
Chapter from My PhD Thesis
Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng.
Significant phytochemicals include betulin, tannin, resin, and volatile oil. (10)
Eight ounces recent bark to 1 pint alcohol 50%. Dose 1–20 drops. (1)
This member of the hazelnut family grows throughout the United States from Southern New England to the western border of the Great Lakes and southward. It can be found in clumps along the sides of streams, rivers, ponds, and in swampy locations. The tree reaches 15 feet and produces catkins that remain on the tree throughout the winter. The tree gets its name as a result of these catkins, or tags. It was used widely by the North American tribes (Hudson Bay Cree, Penobscot, Mohegan, Iroquois, MicMac, Chippewa, Seneca, Menomonee, Meskwaki, Ojibwe, Mohawk, and Tete de Boule) to produce a black dye and to remedy a collection of complaints. Externally, it was applied to wounds, cuts, sprains, and contusions. Internally it was used to treat digestive, urinary, and respiratory conditions including diarrhoea and coughs. Significantly, it was used to treat malaria. The drug passed from the Natives to the colonials early in North American history. (18)
Eclectic Uses (1–11)
Alterative, tonic, emetic, astringent, bitter, resolvent, influences/improves the processes of waste and nutrition, increase the one and stimulating the other, corrects syphilitic dyscrasia and scrofulous states, direct stimulant and tonic to mucous surfaces, stimulates the flow of gastric juices and aids in digestion and assimilation, acts as an anti-putrefactive agent.
“Its special use is in those cases where there is superficial disease of the skin or mucous membranes, taking the form of eczema or pustular eruptions-useful in conjunctivitis, ulcerated sore mouth, chronic eczema, or secondary syphilis presenting these characteristics .” (1)
Marasmus of children, scrofula, tuberculosis, systemic tuberculosis, syphilis, cutaneous eruptions, herpes, scorbutus, impetigo, prurigo, syphilitic or scrofulous diathesis, feeble vitality, depraved states of the blood, scrofulous cachexia (indolent swellings, obstinate cutaneous ulceration’s, tendency to glandular suppuration, etc.), all chronic affections.
Passive haemorrhages especially hematuria.
Nursing sore mouth, indigestion and dyspepsia when the flow of gastric juice is deficient and muscular coats of the stomach are debilitated, diarrhoea caused by or attended with deficiency of gastric secretion, ulceration of mouth or throat.
Hematuria, gonorrhoea, acute stage of gonorrhoea, leucorrhea, indurations of the mammary glands during nursing.
Scrofulous glandular enlargements, with suppuration of the lymphatic glands, enlarged lymphatic glands, glandular enlargements with suppuration.
Chronic bronchitis with excessive expectoration, hay fever, hyperaesthetic rhinitis.
Scrofulous eruptions on the skin, syphilitic skin diseases, scalds and burns, superficial diseases of the skin, eczema of the face and scalp, chronic ulceration, obstinate eczema, eczema, crusta lactea and other eruptions where a constitutional fault causes the condition as in syphilis and scrofula, all stubborn cutaneous affections, poison ivy, skin disorders of eczematous or pustular form, tetter of the scalp of scurfy character, successive crops of boils, herpes, scorbutus, impetigo, prurigo, purpura hemorrhagica.
The drug from Selye’s perspective
State of Resistance
The drug was used to increase resistance to gonorrhoea, impetigo (Staphylococcus), syphilis, and scrofula (tuberculosis). It was used to increase resistance to any chronic disease.
State of Exhaustion
The drug was used when resistance to chronic infectious disease (i.e. syphilis, tuberculosis) failed and State of Exhaustion set in. Signs of SE treated included dyscrasia, cachexia, chronic ulceration of skin and mucous membrane, debility, feeble vitality, passive haemorrhages, and atonic digestion.
The Eclectics found that when the drug was administered, patients were able to withstand the hardship of chronic infection for longer periods of time. They found that when State of Exhaustion set in, and general break down of the body was underway, the drug could be used to bolster the patient. Taken internally, it was said to increase the recuperative capacity or vital force. Lastly, it was used topically to inspire non-healing wounds to proper union and healing. The drug was used to augment the GAS, which suggests it increases adaptation energy.
Brekhman’s adaptogen criterion
An adaptogen should be innocuous and cause minimal disorders in the physiological functions of an organism.
Eclectic literature indicates the drug is innocuous. (1–11) The are no contemporary reports of toxicity.
The action of an adaptogen should be non-specific i.e. it should increase resistance to adverse influences of a wide range of factors of physical, chemical, and biological nature.
Clinically, the drug was used to increase resistance to chronic bacterial infections. (1–11) Experimentally, compounds contained in the drug have been shown to increase resistance to cancer, tumours, influenza, bacterial infections, dental caries, HIV infection, free radical damage, and liver damage. (14)
An adaptogen may possess normalising action irrespective of the direction of the foregoing pathological changes.
The drug was used by the Eclectics to correct the physiological abnormalities associated with State of Exhaustion . The list included feeble vitality, ulceration of the mucous membrane and skin, passive haemorrhages, abnormal secretions from the mucous membrane, and wasting.
The drug was used to normalise immunological abnormalities associated with State of Exhaustion , including hypo-immunity (poor resistance to infection), hyper-immunity (eczema), and auto-immunity (chronic ulceration). It was also used to normalise perverted immune function unrelated to State of Exhaustion (i.e. uncomplicated chronic eczema) (2–13)
Experimentally, the drug contains compounds that normalise physiological abnormalities involving inflammation, hyper-lipidemia, excessive prostaglandin synthesis, diarrhoea, dysentery, hypertension, ulceration, hyper-immune activity, and rheumatic tendencies. (14)
The drug exhibits properties consistent with Brekhman’s definition of an adaptogen. Historically, Alnus rugosa was used in three instances. In the first instance, it was used when a person was fighting a chronic infection. In the second instance, it was used when a patient was no longer able to resist a chronic infection and State of Exhaustion had set in. When the physiological abnormalities associated with State of Exhaustion (skin and mucous membrane ulceration, wasting, etc.) appeared, the drug was administered. Lastly, it was used to correct abnormal immune function, regardless of the nature of the abnormality.
The Eclectics were very clear that the drug was useful when resistance failed and State of Exhaustion set in. They stated that the drug did more than remedy the signs of State of Exhaustion (ulceration of the skin, mucous membrane, temperature abnormalities, wasting, etc.) It addressed the problem of which these signs were merely a symptom. This can be seen in a statement made by Dr. Webster.
“If Alnus specifically influences the lymphatic glands it no doubt plays an important part in the process of the elaboration of the blood, indirectly, by encouraging the functional if not structural power of these parts. That it does this there is no question in the minds of those who are familiar with its action. Where a scrofulous cachexia is prominent, as manifested by indolent swellings, obstinate cutaneous ulceration’s, and tendency to glandular suppurations, this remedy is one of our best indigenous agents. It will not correct the suppurative tendency as readily as the sulphide of calcium, perhaps, but it will go further into the case than that remedy and correct underlying states which are indirectly etiological factors in the suppurative state , and remedy at the same time concomitant ills, thus covering a much more extensive territory than that drug, in a curative sense. (5)
The drug improved the signs of State of Exhaustion , but did so by addressing the real issue, failed resistance.
Potential clinical applications
Potential uses include raising resistance to infection, lengthening State of Resistance , and remedying State of Exhaustion .
• Complete chemical screening of Alnus rugosa. At the moment, there is only a preliminary knowledge of the drug constituents. A complete chemical screen is necessary.
• Alnus rugosa and its effect on the GAS. The drug should be tested out in the animal model for determination of its specific effects on the GAS.
• Alnus rugosa and skin infection. The drug was used to raise resistance to bacterial infection and to speed wound healing. Alnus rugosa contains tannin with a broad-spectrum antibiotic activity. Its close relation, Alnus rubra, which was often used in its stead in the last century, has demonstrated an antibiotic effect against both fungal and bacterial infection. It even demonstrated antibiotic activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (13,14) The drug and its ability to raise resistance to skin infections should be examined.
• Alnus rugosa and HIV infection. The drug was used to raise resistance to chronic debilitating infections. Specifically, to prevent a person passing into stage of exhaustion and to retrieve them once they entered it. Betulin, a constituent of the drug, demonstrated an anti-HIV activity mediated through anti-replication activity. Several studies have demonstrated that Betulin has an anti-HIV effect. (15–16) Alnus rugosa and its ability to increase resistance to HIV infection should be examined.
• Alnus rugosa and chronic bacterial infection. The drug was used when resistance to chronic bacterial infection (tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.) could no longer be maintained and State of Exhaustion set in. Experimentally, the drug contains compounds with an antibiotic effect. (14) Its role in raising resistance to these infections should be examined.
The drug is widely available in the wild and is readily cultivated.
• Scudder, John Milton. Specific Medication and Specific Medicines. Revised. Fifth edition. 1874. P. 67.
• Scudder, John Milton. The American Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Published by the author. Cincinnati . 1883. P. 486.
• Neiderkorn, JS. The Physicians and Students ready Guide to Specific Medication. Little Printing Company. Bradford , Ohio . 1892. P. 98.
• Watkins, Lyman. An Eclectic Compendium of the Practice of Medicine. John M. Scudder Sons. Cincinnati . 1895 P. 422.
• Webster, Herbert. Dynamical Therapeutics. Webster Medical Publishing Company. San Francisco . 1898 P. 299,389, 538.
• Felter, Harvey W. Syllabus of Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Second edition. Scudder Brothers Company. Cincinnati . 1901. P. 364.
• Neiderkorn, JS. A Handy Reference Book. Published for the author. Cincinnati . 1905. P. 21.
• Felter, HW and Lloyd, JU. Kings’ Dispensatory. Ohio Valley Company. 1898. P. 146.
• Fyfe John William. Pocket Essentials of Modern materia Medica and Therapeutics. The Scudder Brothers Company. Cincinnati . 1903. P. 38.
• Allen, Paul. Eclectic System of Medicine. Published by the author. New York . 1869.
• Ellingwood, Finley. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Pharmacognosy. Ellingwood’s Therapeutist. Chicago . 1919. P. 274.
• Dr. Dukes Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical databases. Agricultural research service. USDA.
• McCutcheon et al. Antifungal screening of medicinal plants of British Columbia native peoples. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1994 Dec; 44(3): 157–69. From PubMed abstracts.
• McCutcheon et al. Antibiotic screening of medicinal plants of British Columbia native peoples. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1992 Oct; 37(3): 213–23. From PubMed abstracts.
• Akihisa T et al. Inhibitory effects of triterpenoids and sterols on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase. Lipids 2001 May; 36(5): 507–12. From PubMed abstracts.
• Kashiwada Y et al. 3,28-Di-O-(dimethylsuccinyl-betulin isomers as anti-HIV agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2001 Jan 22; 11(2): 183–5. From PubMed abstracts.
• Sun IC et al. Anti-Aids agents. 34. Synthesis and structure activity relationships of betulin derivatives as anti-HIV agents. J Med Chem 1998 Nov 5; 41(23): 4648–57. From PubMed abstracts.
• Erichson-Bronson, Charlotte . Medicinal and other uses of North American Plants. Dover Publishing. 1979. P. 181–183.
Notes from the Eclectic Physicians
1854: JOHN KING
Properties and Uses – Tag Alder Bark is alterative, emetic, and astringent. A decoction or extract of it is useful in scrofula, secondary syphillis, and several forms of cutaneous disease. The inner bark of the root is emetic; and a decoction of the cones is said to be astringent and useful in hematuria, and other hemorrhages. An excellent opthalmic powder is made by boring a hole from half an inch to an inch in diameter, lengthwise, through a stout piece of a limb of a tag alder. Put it into hot ashes, and let it remain till the tag is almost all charred (three or four days), then split it open,take out the salt, powder, and keep it in a vial. To use it, blow some of the powder in the eye, through a quill. An article named Alnuine is said to have been obtained from this plant, which possesses alterative, tonic and astringent properties , and is recommended in herpes, syphillis, scorbutus, scrofula, impetigo, etc, in doses of one to three grains, three or four times a day. Likewise an essential agent, Alunin, for the same purpose. We have not been advised of the manner in which these agents are prepared, and therefore can say but little concerning them.
Preparation – Prepare a tincture from the recent bark 3viij. to Alcohol 50 degree Oj. Dose gtts. j. to xx.
We may employ the Alnus in infusion, or in the form of tincture with dilute alcohol; the first being preferable if we wish its greatest influence.
It exerts a specific influence upon the processes of waste and nutrition, increasing the one and stimulating the other. It is thus a fair example of the ideal alterative, and is one of the most valuable of our indigenous remedies.
Its special use seems to be in those cases in which there is superficial disease of the skin or mucous membranes, taking the form of eczema or pustular cruption. In these cases I have employed it as a general remedy, and as a local application with the best results. It does not seem to make much difference wheter it is a conjunctivitis, an ulcerated sore mouth or throat, chronic excema, or secondary syphilis presenting these characteristics, it is equally beneficial.
1883: Scudder: (Alterative)
(The bark of Alnus Serrulata – U.S. )
Preparations – Infusion of Alnus. Tincture of Alnus.
Dose – Of the tincture, gtt. v. to 3j.
Therapeutic Action – Alnus is alterative, tonic, and slightly astringent; the inner bark is said to be emetic. It is an agent that has not been much employed by the majority of the profession, and yet those who have used it consider it one of our most efficient alterative agents.
We have employed it internally and as a wash in scrofulous eruptions on the skin, with more advantage that any other agent. It has also proved useful in cases of scrofula with glandular enlargement, and especially where there is suppuration of the lymphatic glands. In these cases we generally combine it with yellow dock in the form of a decoction, one ounce of each to one and a half pints of water, boiled down to one pint, expressed and strained, giving it in doses of one half to one ounce three times a day, with the local application of the same. In the nursing sore mouth of women, these two agents combined, used as a wash, and taken internally at the same time, have proved very successful. We have also used it in various syphilitic skin diseases, with good results; we have also employed it in chronic bronchitis with profuse expectoration, with apparent good results. In these cases we have used equal parts of the Alnus, Rumex crispus, and Quercus rubra, either in decoction or syrup. It is said that the young twigs, cooked in lard until they are crisped, then strained, form a very good application to scalds and burns.
General alterative, scrofula.
Superficial diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, eczema of the face and scalp, syphilitic or scrofulous diathesis, feeble vitality. Ten drops to one drachm of the tincture three times a day.
1898: Webster: (The Lymphatic System)
Alnus(Alnus rubra) possesses, in some quarters, the reputation of reducing enlarged lymphatic glands, and is, therefore, entitled to a place in this department. Although credited by some writers with a direct influence in glandular enlargements it has never been used to any great extent for this purpose, but has been relegated by old authors to that class of agents vaguely termed “alteratives”. These remedies are credited with purifying the blood by some unknown process, of imporving the processes of waste and nutrition and correcting syphilitic dyscrasiae and scrofulous states. This would be crediting the remedy with a number of different qualities, all of which it may possess.
If Alnus specifically influences the lymphatic glands it no doubt plays an important part in the process of the elaboration of the blood, indirectly, by encouraging the functional if not structural power of these parts. That it doses this there is no question in the minds of those who are familar with its action. Where a scrofulous cachexia is prominent, as manifested by indollent swellings, obstinate cutaneous ulcerations, and tendency to glandular suppurations, this remedy is one of our best indigenous agents.
It will not correct the suppurative tendency as readily as the sulphide of calcium, perpaps, but it will go further into the case than that remedy and correct underlying states which are indirectly etiological factors in the suppurative state, and remedy at the same time concomittant ills, thus covering a much more extensive territory than that drug, in a curative sense. However, there would be no good reason why the lime salt and the vegetable remedy might not be administered in alternation, and the advantage of the conjoint action of the two remedies, thus be derived, when this seemed urgently demanded.
I was once familiar with the practice of a “Thomasonian” who relied upon almost entirely upon this remedy in all chronic affections. It was his tonic, blood purifier and all round remedy for every chronic affection, and his success, in many cases, was phenomonal. The lymphatic system represents the tap root of animal life, and a remedy which can augment its functions when the economy is disturbed, offers many probabilities of success.
The value of this class of remedies in syphilis is due, in all probability, to their power of improving the activity of the lymphatic glands, as induration and impaired activity of these organs is one of the pernicious effects of this disease. Syphilis, scrofula, and other dyscrasia depending upon faulty elaboration in this system are very favorably influenced many times by this remedy. And while many cases of skin disease are probably dependant upon a fault of the plastic power of the skin, others are the effect of the administration of agents influencing the lymphatic system. In chronic ulceration, obstinate eczem and depraved states of the blood in any form, this remedy is commendable for a trial.
Form of administration: the specific medicine.
Dose: From one to ten drops three or four times a day.
1898; Webster; (Skin) – Alnus Serrulata
This is a valuable and reliable remedy in such skin affections as eczema, crusta lactea, and other eruptions where a constitutional cause lies behind the malady, as scrofula or syphilis. It possesses a specific affinity for the skin, and appears to influence the nutrition of this part. It should be recollected in all stubborn cutaneous affections as a probable means of relief, its persistent use usually affording satisfaction.
Form for Administration. – The specific medicine.
Dose. – From five to fifteen drops.
1901 : Harvey W Felter (Alteratives)
synonyms: Swamp Alder, Red Alder, Smooth Alder
Botanical origin: The recent bark of Alnus serrulata, Aiton; Nat. Ord., Betulaceae.
This remedy is an astringent and an admirable alternative. Its specific use is to increase waste and improve nutrition. It is one of the best of the vegetable catalytics, powerfully increasing retrograde metamorphosis. Upon the mucous surfaces it acts as a direct stimulant and tonic. Upon the stomach it exerts a kindly influence, stimulating the flow of gastric juice and aiding digestion and assimilation. It also acts as an anitputrefactive agent.
Alnus is a good drug in passive hemorrhage, particularly haematuira. It serves a good purpose in marasmus of children. Locally and internally administered, combined with Rumues crispus, it cures nursing sore mouth. It is a remedy for indigestion and dyspepsia when the flow of gastric juice is deficient and the muscular coats of the stomach are debilitated. Locally applied it is said to serve well in hay fever and relieve gonorrhoea. Perhaps it is one of the best of local agents for the relief of Rhus poisoning.
The chief field for this drug is in skin disorders, assuming an eczematous or pustular form. It is best adapted to superficial affections of both the skin and mucous surfaces. In tetter of the scalp of scurfy character it renders good service. It is a remedy for scrofulous affections, especially when marked by glandular enlargement and pustulation. It is a good remedy in successive crops of boils. The infusion stains the skin. The dose of in the infusion (one ounce of the drug to one pint of water) is a wineglassful; of specific Alnus from one to twenty drops.
The chief field for this drug is in skin disorders, assuming an eczematous or pustular form. It is best adapted to superficial affection of both the skin and mucous surface. In tetter of the scalp or scurfy character it renders good service. It is a remedy for scrofulous affections , especially when marked by glandular enlargement and pustulation. It is a good remedy in successive cases of boils. The infusion stains the skin. The dose of the infusion, one ounce of the drug to one point of water, is a wine glass full, of specific alnus from one to twenty drops.
sp.med.: skin diseases with scaly or pustular eruptians, feeble vitality. dose: five ten drops every 3 to 4 hours.
1909: Felter and Lloyd
Botanical Source and History – This shrub grows plentifully throughout the United States from Southern New England to the western border of the Great Lakes and southward. It occurs as clumps or thickets, along the borders of streams, rivers, ponds, and in swamps, attaining a height of from 6 to 15 feet. The stems are straight and the leaves smooth, somewhat coriaceous, obtuse, doubly serrate, round or blunt at the apex, and are accompanied by elliptical, obtuse stripules. Its flowers appear in March and April, before the leaves have expanded, and are of a reddish-green color. The pistillate flowers are borne in an erect, and the staminate, in a drooping, catkin. The fruit, which is ovate, often persists throughout the winter and gives rise to the name “tag alder”. The bark is brownish-gray when fresh, and has an astringent, bitterish taste.
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage – To the taste tag alder is bitter and astringent. It powerfully increases retrograde metamorphosis and exerts a direct tonic action upon mucous surfaces, aiding digestion and assimilation. It is a true catalytic and a positive anti-putrefactive agent. Locally applied, the decoction stains the skin. The drug stimulates the gastric mucous membrane and causes an increased flow of gastric juice. Applied to the mammae, the leaves are said to decrease the lacteal secretion. It is alterative, emetic, and astringent.
This much neglected, but very important, remedy is a valuable agent in scrofulosis, especially in those cases marked by glandular enlargements and suppuration. Prof. Scudder speaks of it as one of the most valuable of our indigenous remedies, and points to its use in “superficial diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, taking the form of eczema or pustular eruption.” Administered internally and applied locally in these conditions, we may expect from alnus the best of results. Impetigo, prurigo, herpes, and scorbutus, are diseases in which alnus will be of great utility. In scurfy tetter of the scalp, in children, it is of much value.
The happiest results are obtained from its use in successive crops of boils. It is a good agent in passive hemorrhages, particularly in hematuria, for which a decoction of the cones has also been used, and it is favourably mentioned for purpura hemorrhagica.
In marasmus of children, it is a much praised remedy. Combined with rumex crispus, and used locally and internally, it is a good drug in nursing sore mouth of mothers.
Alnus is an important drug in indigestion and dyspepsia, when resulting from deficient secretion of gastric juice and debility of the muscular coat of the stomach. It may be associated with specific nux vomica. In diarrhoea, caused by or attended with deficiency of the gastric secretion, it serves an excellent purpose. It has been used with good results as an injection for leucorrhoea, and the leaves may “scatter” indurations of the mammary glands during the nursing period.
Dr. A. D. Ayer reports many cases of periodical hyperaesthetic rhinitis (hay fever) cured by alnus. He recommends a distillate prepared after the manner of distillate of hamamelis. The distillate is first used with an equal bulk of water and snuffed up the nostrils 5 or 6 times daily. It may be inceased to full strength in a day or two. If desirous, it may be applied to atomization. At night the nose is smeared with the distillate combined with petrolatum. At the same time give internally: R Distillate of alnus, gtt. xv to xxx, in a little water, 1 hour before or after meals. Dr. Ayer also recommends this preparation in the acute stage of gonorrhoea, and as an antidote to rhus poisoning. The remedy is most effectual in infusion (fresh alnus bark, 3j, aqua Oj); dose, a wine-glassful. Specific alnus, 1 to 20 drops.
Specific Indications and Uses – The specific use of this remedy is to improve nutrition and increase waste. It is of particular value in scrofula, with feeble vitality, and chronic skin diseases exhibiting scaly or pustular eruptions.
Suppuration of the lymphatic glands;chronic skin diseases;conditions causing boils, breaking down of surfaces; resulting in ulcerations of the skin, mouth and throat, eczematous conditions.
The continued use of alnus improbes nutrition and waste. In the treatment of chronic diseases of the skin it is a frequently indicated remedy. Alnus rubra is alterative, resolvent, tonic and astringent. In large doses it is emetic.
Indications: suppuration of the lymphatic glands, chronic skin diseases;conditions causing boils, breaking down of surfaces, resulting in ulceration of the skin, mouth, and throat, eczematous conditions. The continued use of alnus improves nutrition and waste. in the treatment of chronic conditions of the skin it is a frequently indicated remedy. Alnus rubra is alterative, resolvent, tonic, and astringent. in large doses it is emetic.
1919: Ellingwood: ALNUS – ALNUS RUBRA
Synonym – Tag Alder
Constituents – Not analyzed.
Preparations – Specific Medicine Alnus. Dose, from one to sixty minims.
Therapy – This agent combines both alterative and tonic astringent properties. It removes waste products, improves the tone of mucous structures and increases the secretory action of the glands of these structures. At the same time it prevents the flow of an excessive quantity of mucus into the stomach, and stimulates the flow of gastric juice and aids the digestion. It cures various forms of ulcerations in the mouth, or in the gastro-intestinal canal. It is advised in rhus poisoning. It has accomplished satisfactory cures in pustular and eczematous disease of the skin.
Dr. Ramey of Lincoln , Neb. , suggests the use of alnus in the treatment of syphilis. He gives it in conjunction with echinacea and stillingia with successful results. it can be given as high as thirty drops at a dose, four times a day and will undoubtedly add something to our list of good remedies for this disease.