Chapter from My PhD Thesis
Notes from the Eclectic Physicians
Parts Used: Leaves
Remember This: Mucous Remover
Reasonable Uses: coughs, colds, influenza hay fever, allergies, bronchitis, excessive mucous production, post nasal drop, permanently dripping nose or eyes, fevers, tropical fevers. .
History and Traditional Uses
Without eucalyptus trees, Australia would be a bleak place. Eucalyptus trees cover more than three-quarters of the place! Its roots store water which the aborigines and early Australian settlers used to their advantage. Word of its healing capacity spread from the Natives, to the outbackers, and from them to the rest of the world. In America, the Eclectic physicians, who practiced herbal medicine from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s, used eucalyptus to ease respiratory infections.
Scientific Back Up
The key to eucalyptus’s healing power is a chemical called eucalyptol. Evidence shows that it relieves nasal and bronchial congestion, eases sore throats and coughs, and fights infection. Eucalyptus tea is especially good for bronchitis and throat inflammations. Absorbed by the stomach, its aromatic oils are excreted through the lungs, where they act as an expectorant to help loosen and eject mucus. These oils, when deposited in the lungs, alsoact as antiseptics to fighting infection. In addition, eucalyptus leaf tea contains tannins, which help relieve throat inflammation and slow mucous secretion. The Eucalyptus tree produces the ultimate cold remedy.
Herbalists Use It To…
Whether the problem is acute, as in a cold, or chronic, as in chronic sinusitis, Eucalyptus leaves are used to ease the flow of mucous out of the respiratory tract. Its oils increase water production in the respiratory tract which waters down the mucous and makes it flow out more readily. It also opens up the pipes which only helps matter. The blocked up sensation is quickly relieved with Eucalyptus.
Cut a cold short
Long used to open the airways, not everyone knows that the leaves of this tree can be used to reduce the severity of cold. Some say that it can be used to stop a cold before it takes hold. Herbalists suggest that it may stimulate the immune system which in turn fights a cold more effectively. Regardless, herbalists find colds are less complicated when Eucalyptus is used.
Clear clinging colds
In the last century Eucalyptus leaves were used to treat recurrent fevers, often caused by malaria and various viruses with a tendency to revisit the sufferer. Today we are seeing more and more cold whichs cling to the victim for ages. Colds last months now instead of days. For the cold that will not move, Eucalyptus is the ideal tonic to help it on its way.
Dry the drip
Some people have a constant stream of mucous running out of their nose, in hay fever season and out. In the last century doctors suggested that this simple leaf could stop the stream. Contemporary herbalists recommend Eucalyptus as a tonic to those with a faucet like nose. Indeed, any time chronic mucous overproduction is a problem.(sinusitis, rhinitis, bronchitis.)
Too much eucalyptus may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If you develop digestive upset, reduce the dose. Don’t use this herb if you have gallbladder disease.
Chapter from My PhD Thesis
Part Used: Leaves
Chemical Constituents: Significant phytochemicals include epiglobulol, essential oil, eucalyptin, and euglobal. (12)
This plant and other allied species are native to Australia . Formerly, indigenous people used the leaves to treat Malaria. The drug passed from indigenous use to European medical circles in the 19 th century. Medical history reports that the Spanish ship La Favorita was in Botany Bay , Australia when Malaria broke out amongst the crewmembers. Just as the crew was about to
be made extinct by fever, this traditional remedy was used to prevent that final catastrophe. As a result, the drug made its was to Spain where Dr. Eydoux and M. de Salvy gave the drug it an initial trial. Dr. Ramel, of Valencia , introduced the drug to the Academy of Medicine in 1866. Once introduced to Spanish medicine, the drug spread to other European medical centres. In time it made its way to North America where it was used to treat remittent and intermittent fevers (malaria). Eucalyptus globulous was first mentioned in the U.S.P. in 1880 and remained official through 1910.
Eclectic uses (1–11)
Tonic, stimulant, antiseptic, antiperiodic, febrifuge, diuretic, essential tonic, restorative, intestinal antiseptic, stimulant diuretic, strengthens the pulse and increases the temperature, imparts a sense of warmth to all parts of the body, improves appetite and digestion, reduces cold perspiration, influences the urinary tract, destroys lower forms of animal life and increases secretion from the body, gastric stimulant, in the debilitated patient it lessens coughs and secretions and improves appetite and gives patient strength, more permanent in effect than quinine, better in chronic malaria than in acute, diuretic in dropsy, destroys or prevents diptheric membrane and speeds its removal, destroys the germs at the root of stomach ulcers, prevents putrefaction, and corrects excessive acidity, rapidly heals ulcers.
“Sensations of coldness and weight in the bowels; cold extremities; cold perspiration; perspiration during chill; chronic catarrhal diarrhoea; chronic vesical catarrh, the urine containing pus; unhealthy fetid secretions from any part; relaxed mucous tissues, with profuse secretion; pasty, badly-smelling coating upon the tongue; fetid false membranes; sore throat, with fetid odor; fetid and catarrhal states of the broncho-pulmonic tract; and, in large doses, in chronic ague with exhausting discharges.” (8)
Low temperature, unequal temperature around the body, fevers, malaria, diseases resulting from malaria, chronic ague with excessive discharge or drain on the system (dysentery, diarrhoea), malaria where quinine is contraindicated, low forms of fevers, pernicious fevers, miasmic fevers, intermittent fevers, recent malaria, chronic malaria, low forms of fever where the stimulating influence of quinine is too great and increases the fever, dumb ague, malarial infection complicated by other disease, the secondary diseased worsened by the malaria(malaise, muscular aching, or distress, vague intermittent conditions of an indefinable character), scarlet fever, catarrhal conditions of the mucous membranes with atony and undue relaxation, catarrhal conditions of any part of the body, influenza with abdominal symptoms, typhoid fever, septicaemia, night sweats, diphtheria, diptheric membranes formed in the throat, larynx, nasal passage.
Cold extremities, enlarged spleen remaining after the malarial fever has broken.
Diarrhoea, chronic diarrhoea with malaria, chronic diarrhoea without malaria, sensations of weight and coldness in the bowels, sore throat, profuse secretion, pasty bad smelling coat on tongue, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery with offensive discharges, fetid false membranes, dyspepsia, atonic dyspepsia, intestinal catarrh, chronic laryngitis, pharyngitis, chronic ulceration of the stomach, catarrh of the stomach and typhoid fever, pseudomembranous laryngitis, enlarged liver remaining after the malarial fever has broken, with persistent jaundice, chronic ulceration of the stomach.
Vesical catarrh, urine containing pus, vascular tumours of the urethra, desquamative nephritis, pyelonephritis, nephritis, pyelitis, inflammation of the urinary parts where urine has become decomposed and offensive, chronic vesical catarrh attended with mucopurelent deposits in the urine, obstinate chronic cases of urinary trouble, chronic catarrh of the bladder, where the urine is high coloured and contains an abnormal amount of mucous, or purulent matter, and urination is painful, dropsy, vaginal leucorrhea, gleet, vaginal leucorrhea with offensive lochial discharge, leucorrhea with relaxed vaginal walls, gonorrhoeal discharges, vaginitis, ulceration of the cervix, catarrh of the uterus and ovaries, cancer of the uterus, ovaries, or breasts.
Migraine, neuralgic pain, nervous affections with coldness of the surface and cold perspiration, malarial neuralgia, malarial headache.
Bronchial affections, coughs with excessive secretion, asthma with profuse secretion, chronic bronchitis, phthisis, chronic bronchitis with or without emphysema, whooping cough, bronchial affections with fetid expectoration, ozena, fetid or profuse mucous discharges, pulmonary gangrene, foul and purulent respiratory diseases, bronchorrhea, pulmonary tuberculosis.
Bad smelling indolent ulcers, indolent, fetid wounds or ulcers, cancerous ulcerations, septicaemia, gangrene, cancerous affections.
The drug from Selye’s perspective
State of Resistance
The drug was used to raise resistance to scarlet fever, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, hepatitis, influenza, influenza with abdominal symptoms, whooping cough, diphtheria, fever, malaria, malaria complicated with other disease, the secondary worsened by the malaria, and septicaemia.
State of Exhaustion
The drug was used when resistance to chronic infection failed and State of Exhaustion set in. Signs of State of Exhaustion treated with the drug included low temperature, excessive discharges causing a drain on the system (diarrhoea, night sweats, dysentery, mucous, etc.), low temperature, unequal temperature around the body, cold extremities, ague, neuralgia, headache, vague intermittent conditions of indefinable nature, catarrhal conditions of any part of the body, atonic dyspepsia, indolent ulcers, gangrene, and digestive, respiratory, urinary, or reproductive breakdown.
From Selye’s perspective, the drug was used to augment the GAS, which suggests in increases adaptation energy. Evidence to this effect includes the following. The drug was used to raise resistance to acute and chronic infection. The drug was used when State of Exhaustion set in. The Eclectics used the drug when external forces (malaria, diphtheria) or internal forces (kidney failure) depleted a patient of vitality. It was used to bolster the body so it was able to maintain resistance longer, and to invigorate it once State of Exhaustion had occurred. It was used internally to stimulate the general recuperative capacity and externally to stimulate healing in wounds and cold sores.
Brekhman’s Adaptogen Criterion
An adaptogen should be innocuous and cause minimal disorders in the physiological functions of an organism.
The drug is considered innocuous in Eclectic and contemporary literature. (1–15)
The action of an adaptogen should be non-specific i.e. it should increase resistance to adverse influences of a wide range of factors of physical, chemical, and biological nature.
The Eclectics used Eucalyptus to increase resistance to acute and chronic infections including malaria, tuberculosis, diphtheria, typhoid, Gonococcus, influenza, and Streptococcus. (1–11)
Experimentally, the crude drug has been shown to have potent anti-oxidant activity. (13) Compounds contained within the drug have been shown to increase resistance to gram positive and negative bacteria (salmonella, Strep), viral (EBV, Influenza), fungal (Candida), and protozoan infection (malaria), cancer, and liver damage. (12)
An adaptogen may possess normalising action irrespective of the direction of the foregoing pathological changes.
Clinically, the drug was used to normalise function when lost due to acute infection (i.e. influenza) and when the physiological abnormalities associated with State of Exhaustion become apparent. (1–11)
Experimentally, the crude drug has been shown to inhibit inflammation through inhibition of IgE release from mast cells. (14) The crude drug was also shown to reduce blood sugar levels in Streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. (15) Constituents found in the drug have been noted to normalise a host of physiological abnormalities including abnormal inflammation, hypersensitivity reactions, ulcer formation, hypertension, and hyperacidity. (12)
The drug exhibits properties consistent with Brekhman’s definition for an adaptogen. It is innocuous, raises resistance to a wide array of biological threats, and normalises physiological function.
During the age of colonialism, infection was an enormous problem. Europeans moved around the globe and into regions filled with infectious agents they had never before encountered. At the same time they met with local remedies used to raise resistance to infection, drugs like Eucalyptus globulus. It could be said that the age of colonialism was a golden age of tonic medicine. The world economy flooded with drugs like Eucalyptus and Cinchona, powerful weapons in the war against infection.
Eucalyptus was one of the many foreign drugs the Eclectics evaluated. Unlike many that were discarded, Eucalyptus became a standard in the treatment of infectious disease. Severe acute infections and debilitating chronic infections alike were treated with this drug.
Potential Clinical Applications
Contemporary research indicates most of the historical uses of the drug were sensible. The drug raises resistance to infection, prolongs State of Resistance , and even improves cases when State of Exhaustion has set in. For all these reasons, the drug may have a role raising resistance to infectious disease.
• Effect of Eucalyptus globulus on the GAS. The drug should be tested out in the animal model to determine its specific effects on the GAS.
• Non-volatile constituents of Eucalyptus globulus. Much of the research on the drug has been done on the essential oils contained therein. It would be helpful if the effects of the non-volatile constituents were established.
• Eucalyptus globulus and resistant strains of Malaria. The drug was used to increase resistance to malaria, specifically chronic malaria and forms of malaria resistant to Cinchona rubra (quinine). Its role in increasing resistance to quinine resistant malaria should be investigated.
• Eucalyptus globulus and viral hepatitis. The drug was used to increase resistance to a host of infectious diseases including bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan. Contemporary science has validated these uses. Specifically it has a demonstrated antiviral and liver protecting capacity. This suggests its role in raising resistance to viral hepatitis should be examined.
The drug is widely available.
• Scudder, J. M. the American Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Published by the Author. Cincinnati . 1883. P. 467.
• Watkins, Lyman. An Eclectic Compendium of the Practice of Medicine. John M.Scudder’s Sons. Cincinnati . 1895. P. 435.
• Webster, HT. Dynamical Therapeutics—A work devoted to the Theory and Practice of Specific Medication with special references to the newer remedies. Webster Medical Publishing Company. Oakland . Second Edition. 1898. P. 147, 435, 621.
• Felter, Harvey Wickes and Lloyd, John Uri. Kings’ American Dispensatory. Volume one and Volume two. Ohio Valley Company. Cincinnati . 1898. P. 1356.
• Felter, Harvey. Syllabus of Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Compiled from notes taken from the lectures of F.J.Locke. Edited with pharmacological additions by H.W.Felter. Second edition, with appendix. Scudder Brothers Company. Cincinnati.1901. P. 152, 469.
• Peterson, F.J. Materia Medica and Clinical Therapeutics. Published by the Author. Los Olivos , California . 1905. P. 88.
• Ellingwood, Finley. A Systematic Treatise on Materia Medica and Therapeutics with reference to the most direct action of drugs. Fifth Edition thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged. Chicago Medical Times Publishing Company. 1905.
• Lloyd, JU. History of the Vegetable Drugs of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States . Bulletin number 18: pharmacy number 4. 1911. P. 36.
• Fyfe, John William. Pocket Essentials of Modern Materia Medica and Therapeutics. The Scudder Brothers Company. 1903. P. 114.
• Ellingwood, Finley. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Pharmacognosy. Ellingwood’s Therapeutist. Chicago . 1919. P. 176.
• Lloyd, John Uri. Origin and History of all the Pharmacopoeial Vegetable Drugs, Chemicals and Preparations. Volume 1: Vegetable Drugs. The Caxton Press. Cincinnati . 1921. P. 134.
• Dr. DukesPhytochemical and Ethnobotanical databases. Agricultural Research Service. USDA.
• Dessi et al. Anti-oxidant activity of extracts from plants growing in Sardinia . Phytotherapy Research 2001 Sep; 15(6):511–8. From PubMed abstracts.
• Ikawati et al. Screening several Indonesian plants for their inhibitory effect on histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2001 May; 75(2): 249–56. From PubMed abstracts.
• Gray et al. Antihyperglycemic actions of Eucalyptus globulus are associated with
pancreatic and extra-pancreatic effects in mice. J Nutr 1998 Dec; 128(12):2319–23.From PubMed abstracts.
• Lloyd Brothers. Dose book of Specific Medicines. Lloyd Brothers, Cincinnati . 1907. P. 126.
Notes from the Eclectic Physicians
1883: Scudder: (tonic)
(The leaves of Eucalyptus Globulus – U.S. )
Preparation – Tincture of Eucalyptus.
Dose – From five drops to half a drachm.
Therapeutic Action – The Eucalyptus is tonic, stimulant and antiseptic.
When taken into the stomach it imparts a sense of warmth, which sometimes extends to all part of the body. It strengthens the pulse, and increases the temperature.
It is claimed that when the temperature is low, or unequal in different parts of the body, this remedy may be used with prominent advantage. It is said to improve the appetite and digestion, but my experience does not confirm this. It is also claimed that it is antiperiodic, and may be substituted for quinine in many cases. But I anticipate, that here also, its good effects are dependent rather upon its stimulant influence upon the circulation, than any antiperiodic property.
To a limited extent, it is antiseptic, but we would hardly select it when we have remedies that are so much better.
1895: Watkins EUCALYPTUS, SP MED:
chronic vesical catarrh, urine contains pus.
Diarrhoea, sensations of weight and coldness in the bowels, cold extremities, cold perspiration, chronic vesical catarrh, urine contains pus; sore throat, profuse secretion, pasty bad smelling coat on tongue, fetid false membrane. Ten drops to one drachm in four ounces of water; teaspoonful every two hours.
The Australian blue gum has been recommended by Dr. Woodbury, of Boston , for the cure of vascular tumours of the urethra, through its internal administration.
Eucalyptus influences the entire urinary tract, and has proven curative in desquamative nephritis, pyelonephritis, and chronic vesical catarrh attended by muco-purulent deposits in the urine. It must be given in small doses, frequently repeated, and its use persevered in, to accomplish good results here. In vesical catarrh, a decoction of the fresh leaves used as a wash for the bladder is a valuable adjuvant.
Form for administration: A saturated tincture of the fresh leaves in alcohol, or the specific medicine.
Dose: from one to ten drops.
1901 : Harvey W Felter (Tonics) – EUCALYPTUS – EUCALYPTUS
BOTANICAL ORIGIN – The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere; Nat. Ord., Myrtacea. Australia and Tasmania .
CHIEF ACTIVE CONSTITUENT – Eucalyptol, a colorless, aromatic, camphoraceous liquid, possessing a sharp, spicy, and cooling taste. Alcohol, carbon, disulphide, and glacial acetic acid dissolve it in all proportions. (See Eucalyptol under Antiseptics).
SPECIFIC EUCALYPTUS – This preparation is made of recent leaves of the Australian fever tree. It contains a large amount of volatile oil and has the characteristic properties of the leaves. It will not mix transparent with water, becoming milky even in small amount.
This species of Eucalyptus is a native tree of Australia , where as many as one hundred and thirty-five varieties are found. Its leaves are large, leathery, aromatic, and greenish-yellow. The tree grows sixteen feet in diameter and nearly two hundred feet high in some cases. The timber is soft when green but quite hard when dry, containing some tannin and other astringents. It also furnishes a variety of so-called quinine. Another variety yields a produce like manna, resembling sugar or glucose. The Eucalyptus globulus is also called the fever tree from its power in preventing fevers. It absorbs water from the ground and makes marshy districts healthful, preventing malarial fevers. Its action is very much like Cinchona. It is astringent, stimulant, antiperiodic, febrifuge, tonic, and markedly antiseptic. Eucalyptol is its active principle. It destroys the lower forms of animal and vegetable life and increases secretion from the body.
The leaves of Eucalyptus are useful in some bronchial affections. For this purpose they should be smoked as a cigarette or in a pipe. Specific Eucalyptus is a good drug in dyspepsia and intestinal catarrh. It acts as a gastric stimulant. Use ten drops three times a day.
The oil . Eucalyptol, acts like turpentine on the kidneys. It is a good remedy in obstinate chronic cases of urinary trouble, as catarrh of the bladder. In diseases resulting from malaria it is a very good remedy. As compared with Cinchona bark it is not so useful in recent, but better in chronic ague, in cases attended with excessive discharge or drain on the system, as diarrhoea, dysentery, etc. We may use specific Eucalyptus or the fluid extract in doses of from ten drops to half a drachm every four hours. It is serviceable in obstinate cases of diarrhoea when no ague is present. In chronic cases give doses of ten drops. In very large doses it produces diarrhoea.
Eucalyptus is a good remedy in chronic laryngitis, pharyngitis, and catarrhal conditions of the mucous membrane, with atony and undue relaxation. It lessens coughs and the secretions, improves the appetite and gives strength to the patient. Give small doses, as large amounts offend the stomach. Asthma, will profuse secretion, is benefited by it. In chronic bronchitis or phthisis it is a good drug.
In vaginal leucorrhoea Eucalyptus checks the discharges. It makes a good application to bad-smelling, indolent ulcers. For its effect upon the respiratory organs, use the fluid extract in doses of from two to thirty drops with glycerin. It does not mix well with water.
The oil, eucalyptol, acts like turpentine on the kidneys. It is a good remedy in obstinate cases of urinary trouble, as catarrh of the bladder. (eucalyptol): being eliminated largely the kidneys eucalyptol may be used where a stimulating diuretic is desired.
1905: Petersen – EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS
Syn. – Eucalyptus; Blue Gum Tree or Tasmania
P. E. – Leaves from older parts of tree
N. O. – Myrtaceae
N. H. – Australia
Properties: Antimalarial, antispasmodic, tonic, febri fuge, antiseptic.
Physiological action: In very large doses it increases the activity of the kidneys greatly, produces pain in the gastro-intestinal trace, indigestion and at times diarrhoea; this is followed by drowsiness, general depression, diminution or loss of power of the lower extremeties. Skin becomes pale, cold and sometimes clammy, pupils are contracted, pulse small and feeble, respiration becomes short, interrupted and jerky, and in a few cases death has resulted. Its poisonous effects may be counteracted with belladonna, nux vomica or alcohol.
Use: In malarial conditions it may be given where quinine is contra-indicated. It is not as prompt in its action as the latter, but more permanent in its effects. In low form of fevers, scarlet fever, diphtheria, phythisis pulmonalis, chronic ulceration of the stomach, catarrh in any part of the body, asthma, nephritis, etc., it is of great value if used with other indicated remedies. In ulceration of the cervix of the uterus, catarrh of the uterus and ovaries; the oil should be applied tot he cervix 2 to 5 times a week. Castor oil should be used as a menstrum; say 1 part of oil of eucalyptus and 2 parts of castor oil, in this way the medical effects will remain a considerable length of time, which is not possible with any other menstrum. This also serves a good purpose in cancer of the uterus and ovaries as well as the breasts. In influenza, where abdominal symptoms are prominent 2 to 5 drops of eucalyptus oil may be taken before dinner and supper for a few days. This often is very effective. As the oil is not well borne by the stomach and its action on the kidneys too pronounced it should not be given often. For general internal use the specific tincture is to be given only.
The agent has been extensively used in the treatment of catarrh of the bladder, nephritis, pyelo-nephritis, and pyelitis, especially if the urine be decomposed and offensive. It is useful also in gleet and as a wash in specific vaginitis. (applied topically)
1909: Felter and Lloyd; EUCALYPTUS (U.S.P.) – EUCALYPTUS
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage – The oil of eucalyptus (which is chiefly eucalyptol) and eucalyptol, in small doses, are gentle stimulants; in large doses, they occasion irritation of the throat and fauces, with increased flow of saliva; cephalagia, with extreme fatigue; frequency of the pulse; increased temperature; diminution of vascular ……..; gastric irritability, and not unfrequently, diarrhoea, accelerated respiration, the peculiar odor of the oil being exhaled with the breath; and increase of the urinary excretion. In some instances a sort of intoxication results from large doses (20 drops) of eucalyptol, an dlarge doses of it and of eucalyptus produce some drowsiness and lack of power over the limbs. The chief eliminatory organs appear to be the lungs and kidneys, the drug causing an increased elimination of urea. Locally, the oil is irritant, particularly if not allowed to evaporate.
Eucalyptus globulus has for a long time been known as a remedy for intermittent fever among the natives of the countries of its origin. It is stated that more than 40 years ago the corvette, “La Favorite,” being in the vicinity of Botany Bay, had her crew nearly decimated by a pernicious fever, and that a perfect recovery ensued among those remainign upon using an infusion of the leaves of Eucalyptus; the credit of this discovery is given to Dr. Eydoux and M. de Salvy. Dr. Ramel, of Valencia , is said to have introduced the remedy into Europe, in a statement made to the Academy of Medicine , in 1866; since which period its therapeutical virtues have been examined by many investigators. The emanations from this tree have, it has been reported, a strng antagonistic influence against those conditions termed malarial, and, on this account, it has been cultivated in various places in Europe where these conditions appear to have had a permanent existence.
Notwithstanding the high encomiums passed upon this agent as an antipyretic by the majority of those who have tested it, there are certain other investigators who are less enthusiastic; thus, Dr. Burdell, who tested it in the miasmatic fevers encountered in the marshy district of Sologne, France, states that, though eucalyptus has been sometimes found a febrifuge nearly equal to quinine, at other times it has proven to be discouragingly inefficient. (Indeed, the same may be observed of quinine an dall other remedies, unless specifically indicated.) After throoughly testing it in 123 cases, he concluded that it possessed but little or no antimalarial power. He states that the cures effected by it have been more frequent in the hospital than in the palustral localities, and which may be readily accounted for. Very often, as Chomel has shown, persons attacked with intermittent fever are cured in the hospital without any medicines having been employed. Dr. Carlotti, of Ajaccio , considers a quickly made decoction of the leaves to be of great value in those cases of intermittent fever that do not yield to quinine. He gives the decoction in doses of from 2 to 5 fluid drachms. Prof. Locke states that it is not so useful in recent ague as cinchona bark, but better in chronic ague, “in cases attended with excessive discharges or drain upon the system, as diarrhoea, dysentery, etc.” He recommends 10-drop doses of specific eucalyptus in chronic obstinate diarrhoea, when no ague is present.
Aside from its alleged utility in intermittents, this agent has had other virtues attributed to it, as follows: The leaves and their preparations have been successfully used as a tonic and gently stimulating stomachic, in atonic dyspepsia, and in catarrh of the stomach and typhoid fever; also advised in mucous catarrhal affections generally; in pseudo-membranous laryngitis, in asthma, with profuse secretion, and in chronic bronchitis, with or without emphysema, and in whooping-cough; it has likewise proved efficient in chronic catarh of the bladder, where the urine is high-colored, contains an abnormal amount of mucus, or perhaps, some purulent matter, and micturition is attended with much pain. More recently it has been recommended as a diuretic in the treatment of dropsy. Both the leaves and the oil, as well as eucalyptol, are excitants and deodorizers, and, as such, have been successfully employed as local applications in bronchial affections with fetid expectoration, in ozena, in fetid or profuse mucous discharges, in vaginal leucorrhoea, offensive lochial discharges, gonorrhoeal discharges, indolent, fetid wounds or ulcers, cancerous ulcerations, in septicemia, and in gangrene. An excellent application in leucorrhoea, with relaxation of the vaginal walls, is prepared as follows: R Sea salt, 1 lb.; fluid extract of eucalyptus, fl3ss. Place the salt in an earthenware or tin vessel, an dpour upon it the extract and mix thoroughly. A half ounce of this preparation may be added to 1 pint of hot water and injected by means of a glass or metallic syringe. M. Bucquoy has found eucalyptus to exert a happy influence in the treatment of pulmonary gangrene. M. Luton, and others, have derived considerable benefit from it, when locally applied in cancerous affections, in the form of compress of lint moistened with the tincture. It has likewise been advised to prevent putrefaction of organic substances, and to deodorize sick-rooms an dapartments containing unhealthy air. The leaves may, in some cases, be applied alone, directly to the part, in form of cataplasm; or they may be combined with other articles to form a poultice. The oil may be applied of full strength, or diluted with some other agent. In throat and pulmonary maladies, a tincture diluted, or a medicated water, may be inhaled in the form of spray; if the oil be employed, it may be dropped on some cotton placed in a small tube, from which the vapor may be inhaled. As a deodorizer, the tincture or the oil may be sprinkled or sprayed upon the offensive body, or the atmosphere of an apartment may be frequently sprayed with the same. Eucalyptol acts very much like the oil and both somewhat resemble turpentine in their effects. Like eucalyptus, it is used in foul an dpurulent respiratory diseases, particularly fetid bronchorrhoea, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary gangrene, and pulmonary tuberculosis, etc.
The dose of eucalyptol and of the oil is from 2 to 10 drops, and it is more convenient to administer it in capsules. One part of either combined with 100 parts of cod-liver oil has proved serviceable in phthisis; it removes the offensive taste and odor of the fish oil. Eucalyptol is now given in many instances where the oil was formerly administered on account of the greater definiteness of the dose, as the oil depends for its virtues upon the percentage of eucalyptol present. Both have been given for the relief of migraine, and, externally applied, give relief in some forms of neuralgic and rheumatic pains.
The leaves of eucalyptus, made up into cigars or cigarettes, and smoked, have been advised to afford relief in bronchial catarrh, asthma, and other affections of the respiratory organs. The question has been asked, may not the small amount of benefit that might be derived from the minute proportion of oil remaining intact, be more than overcome, and even prove injurious, from the irritating action of the smoke and of the empyreumatic products?
The most agreeable and convenient forms of administration are the tincture, in doses of 10 to 30 drops; or the fluid extract in doses of 5 to 30 drops, in syrup; or, preferable to all, specific eucalyptus, from 10 to 30-drop doses in malarial troubles, an dfrom 5 to 10-drop doses in other troubles. It may be given with glycerin or syrup, as it does not mix well with water. The dose of the oil and of eucalyptol is from 5 to 10 minims, preferably in capsules.
Eucalyptus Honey, gathered by bees from eucalyptus flowers, is quite active, and has been recommended for parasitic and putrescent conditions, gonorrhoea, fevers, an dcatarrhal diseases. It is sedative to the heart, actively diuretic, and increases the elimination of uric acid.
Specific Indications and Uses – Sensations of coldness and weight in the bowels; cold extremities; cold perspiration; perspiration during chill; chronic catarrhal diarrhoea; chronic vesical catarrh, the urine containing pus; unhealthy fetid secretions from any part; relaxed mucous tissues, with profuse secretion; pasty, badly-smelling coating upon the tongue; fetid false membranes; sore throat, with fetid odor; fetid and catarrhal states of the broncho-pulmonic tract; and, in large doses, in chronic ague with exhausting discharges.
Nervous affections with coldness of the surface and cold perspiration; sensation of coldness and weight in the bowels; coldness in the extremities; chronic catarrhal affections of the respiratory organs, genito-urinary organs and the gastro-intestinal tract.
The oil or tincture of eucalyptus, well diluted, may be used as a deodorizing application in foul smelling ulcers and wounds. The oil is used locally as a lotion, inhalation, or gargle.
Eucalyptus globus is tonic, stimulant, diuretic, and antiseptic. In large doses it is a mild anti-periodic.
1919: Ellingwood – EUCALYPTUS, EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS
Synonym – Blue-gum tree of Tasmania .
Constituents – A volatile oil, Chlorophyll Eucalyptol, resin, tannin, etc.
Preparations – Extractum Eucalypti Fluidum, Fluid Extract of Eucalyptus. Dose, ten to sixty minims. Specific Medicine Eucalyptus. Dose, five to thirty minims. Oleum Eucalypti, Oil of Eucalyptus. Dose, two to twenty minims.
Eucalyptol is the produce of the distillation of the oil of Eucalyptus at a high temperature (347 degrees Fah.). It is identical with a substance found in cajuput, mentha, rosemary, curcuma, santonica and some others. It is a colorless liquid, crystallizes, when reduced to a low temperature, in long needle-shaped crystals. It has an aromatic, camphoraceous odor and a cooling, pungent taste. It is soluble in alcohol and in glacial acetic acid, and should be kept in dark-colored glass bottle with ground-glass stoppers in a cool place. The dose is six to ten minims, in a capsule or emulsion, four times daily.
Physiological Action – In overdoses Eucalyptus produces drowsiness with a loss of muscular power, cold skin, pale lips and cheeks, feeble pulse, short and irregular breathing and contracted pupils. It produces increased action of the kidneys, pain in the stomach and bowels, indigestion and diarrhea. It is climinated through all the emunctories. The inhalation of the vapor of too large a quantity of the oil has produced the nervous phenomena above described in children, but this result is rare.
After a moderate dose of the oil of Eucalyptus, in which its chief virtues reside, there is a feeling of exhiliration and buoyancy, while after very large doses there is depression, with drowsiness, loss of power in the limbs, skin pale, cold, insensible; pupils contracted, pulse imperceptible, breathing short, jerking and interrupted.
Poisoning by eucalyptus from taking a dram of the oil exhibited the following symptoms which developed very slowly: There was vomiting, and abdominal pain, which occurred in about four hours; diarrhea became marked, and in an hour later the boy became drowsy, semi-comatose, pale, collapsed, with small pulse, muscles generally relaxed, pupils medium sized and equal to some response to light; breathing shallow. Other than these the symptoms resembled opium poisoning, and the coma persisted several hours. There was an absence of nervous irritation, but the gastro-intestinal symptoms were marked. The agent seemed to inhibit the influence of the cerebrum. There was the odor of oil on the breath for three days.
The poisonous effects should be treated with the usual diffusible stimulants strychnia, alcohol and atropine.
Therapy – In therapeutic action this agent closely resembles cinchona. It is antimalarial, antiperiodic, febrifuge and tonic. The tree has been planted in malarial sections, and wherever planted the malarial conditions have been changed, the disease germs destroyed and the atmosphere purified, the locality becoming healthful and sanitary.
While acting similarly to quinine it may be prescribed where quinine is contraindicated. Its stimulating and antiperiodic influence is not so immediately marked, but its antimalarial influence is persistent, and satisfactory results are ultimately obtained, which can be said also of its antiseptic influence.
It may be given in low forms of fever where the stimulating influence of quinine is too great, increasing the fever. In these cases eucalyptus will reduce the fever.
In the condition known as dumb ague and masked intermittent fever, it will sometimes accomplish very satisfactory results. In all conditions where there may be malarial infection, especially where other disease is present which shows a marked increase at a given time each day, where there is much malaise and muscular aching or distress of a distinctly periodical character, this agent is directly indicated in doses of one-half dram of the tincture.
It is of much service in malarial neuralgia, in malarial headache and in vague intermittent conditions of an indefinable character.
Where night sweats follow malarial disorder, where an enlarged liver an dspleen remain after the periodicity is broken, where jaundice has been a more or less persistent complication, this agent has been of much value, combined with other indicated measures.
The antimalarial and distinctly antiseptic properties of eucalyptus give it a prominent place in the therapeutics of typhoid fever; while it has many of the essential tonic and restorative properties, it is most active as an intestinal antiseptic. It has been used in epidemics of typhoid where there could be no possibility of a mistaken diagnosis, and when given from the first all the symptoms showed positive amelioration. The temperature especially was kept under control, while the disease symptoms were markedly controlled. It has been especially noted by those who have used this agent persistently, that the attendants are not likely to contract the disease. This is attributed to the fact that the agent destroys the germ within the intestinal canal.
Eucalyptus is a valuable remedy in scarlet fever given in conjunction or alternation with aconite and belladonna. It answers an excellent purpose in many cases. It prevents the symptoms developing in a severe form by destroying the germs an dassisting in the control of the temperature. It cures the throat symptoms quickly. It stimulates a normal action in the glands of the skin, and by encouraging elimination through these glands, prevents post-scarlatinal nephritis. Five drops in lard thoroughly rubbed together and applied to the skin daily, is one of the most efficient of applications. When nephritis is present it has a positively curative influence.
In the treatment of diphtheria, eucalyptus is an excellent remedy. It may be used as a gargle diluted, and when the membrane has formed in the larynx or in the nasal passages, if fifteen drops of a mixture of equal parts of the oil of eucalyptus and turpentine be dropped upon the surface of hot water in a close-mouthed vessel, and the vapor inhaled by the patient for a few minutes every two hours, there is nothing that will more speedily destroy the membrane and assist in its removal.
The writer has been successful in completely clearing the nasal passages within thirty-six hours by this measure when the occlusion was nearly complete. This course is almost equally applicable in membranous croup. A specific measure in this disease is to give internally every two hours five drops of a mixture of equal parts of the tinctures of eucalyptus and jaborandi. If the membrane has formed extensively, this course loosens it and permits it to be thrown off. If it is in the early forming stage, the growth ceases and the membrane disappears. These facts have all been confirmed in a multitude of cases.
Eucalyptus if further used in tonsillitis in chronic post-nasal and bronchial catarrhs in asthma, in which case the vapor either alone or with that of stramonium is very useful, an din those conditions of the lungs and bronchi where there is offensive expectoration, pus or a suggestion of gangrene. In the constitutional treatment of phthisis it is of value, and if a few drops of the oil be added to cod liver oil, it will remove the disagreeable flavor of the latter agent.
This agent has been used with excellent results in the treatment of chronic ulceration of the stomach. It stimulates the mucous surface to normal action, destroys the germs of the disease, prevents putrefaction and corrects excessive acidity. The ulcers heal rapidly under the influence of this remedy. It is equally efficacious in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery with offensive discharges.
The agent has been extensively used in the treatment of catarrh of the bladder, nephritis, pyelo-nephritis and pyelitis, especially if the urine be decomposed and offensive. It is useful also in gonorrhoea and in gleet and as a wash in specific vaginitis.
In uterine catarrh this agent is valuable used as a douche in the proportion of two drams of the tincture to a pint of water. Whenever offensive discharges from these parts are present, it is useful in ulceration of the cervix. It may be made into a suppository with cocoa butter and white wax, in the proportion of one part of the oil to three parts of the other mixed constituents. This suppository is of great service after labor, either where the douche cannot be used or to be inserted after the douche where there is traumatism. This suppository is of value in uterine cancer. It relieves pain and corrects the odor of the discharges.
Eucalyptus globulus, and other species of eucalyptus, are indigenous to Australia, where the leaves are employed by the natives as a remedy for intermittent fever. It was thus introduced to Europeans towards the middle of the nineteenth century. Possibly its empoyment by the crew of the ship La Favorite, who in the vicinity of Botany Bay were nearly decimated by fever, from which they recovered through the use of an infusion of the leaves of eucalyptus, first gave the drug conspicuity, through the efforts of Dr. Eydoux and M. de Salvy. Dr. Ramel of Valencia, however, has the credit of introducing the remedy to the Academy of Medicine, 1866m thus bringing the drug to the attention of the medical profession, by whom it is now used in extract form, in other directions than that for which it was originally commended. The distilled oil of eucalyptus has now an extended reputation and use. The date of its first use by the natives of Australia is unknown.
First mentioned in the U.S.P. in 1880. Official in each edition thereafter; including that of 1910.
Eucalyptus globulus, and other species of eucalyptus, are indigenous to Australia, where the leaves are employed by the natives as a remedy for intermittent fever. It was thus introduced to Europeans towards the middle of the 19th century. Possibly its employment by the crew of the ship La Favorita, who in the vicinity of Botany Bay were nearly decimated by fever, from which they recovered through the use of an infusion of the leaves of eucalyptus, first, through the efforts of Dr. Eydoux and M. de Salvy, gave the drug conspicuity. Dr. Ramel, of Valencia, however, has the credit of introducing the drug to the Academy of Medicine, 1866, thus bringing it to the attention of the medical profession, by whom it is now used in extract form, in other directions than that for which it was originally commended. The distilled oil of eucalyptus has now an extended reputation and use. The date of the first use of eucalyptus by the natives of Australia is unknown.
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